Hermaphrodism is qualified in medical language as a state of sexual ambiguity. It is difficult or impossible to define whether a hermaphrodite person is female or male. Very different cases exist.
Hermaphrodism what is it?
Definition of Hermaphrodism
Hermaphrodism is a term that is today often associated with intersex or intersexuality. The sexual character of intersex people is not clearly defined. In medical language, human hermaphrodism is defined as a state of sexual ambiguity characterized by a mixture of female and male sexual characters.
Types of Hermaphrodism
There can be many forms of intersexuality, or intersexuality. However, it would appear that three types of hermaphrodism are distinguished today:
true hermaphrodism which is very rarely characterized by simultaneous development of ovarian and testicular tissues;
pseudo-hermaphrodism in humans, or male pseudo-hermaphrodite, which is associated with people with an XY karyotype (defining a male) showing genital pathways and ambiguous external genitals;
pseudo-hermaphrodism in women, or pseudo female hermaphrodite, which is associated with karyotype XX (defining a female topic) possessing ovaries but external genitals ambiguous.
Causes of Hermaphrodism
For the types presented earlier, Hermaphrodism can be presented as a result of incomplete embryonic evolution towards a female or male phenotype (set of observable traits of an individual). This sexual differentiation disorder may have different causes.
True hermaphrodism results from alteration on sexual chromosomes.
The male pseudo-hermaphrodite may be due to:
abnormalities in testosterone synthesis;
a dihydrotestosterone deficiency, a testosterone derived hormone that intervenes in the differentiation of male genitals.
Female pseudo-hermaphrodite is caused by early exposure to androgen, i.e. hormones responsible for developing male sexual characters. This exhibition may be due to:
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, a hereditary disease affecting adrenal glands producing androgenic
adrenal tumor in the mother of the child hermaphrodite;
an inappropriate hormonal treatment for androgen in pregnant women.
Diagnosis of Hermaphrodism
Diagnosis of Hermaphrodism is usually done from birth by clinical exam. Additional tests, such as hormonal dosages or genetic tests, can be carried out to confirm the diagnosis.
Symptoms of Hermaphrodism
Every Hermaphrodite person may have different symptoms. However, some similarities have been found between the types of hermaphrodism presented earlier.
Characteristics of True Hermaphrodism: True Hermaphrodism is often characterized by the presence of an ovotestis, a gonad having both the characteristics of an ovarian and a testicle. The degree of differentiation of external genitals is dependent on the degree of genetic abnormality.
Characteristics of male hermaphrodite: Genital pathways and external genitals are ambiguous. They may have female or male gender characteristics.
Female hermaphrodite pseudo features: Internal genitals are female genitals while external genitals have male genitals. The latter can be manly to different degrees. In some cases, external genitals are totally virilized from birth but testicles are absent from scholarships
The treatments of Hermaphrodism
Childhood hermaphrodism treatment may be considered. However, she is delicate because she requires parents and the medical surgical team to assign a gender or social identity to the child without being able to ask her for her opinion. The choice is generally discussed with regard to the aspect and development of sexual character. The treatment of Hermaphrodism is then based on a surgical operation to remove tissues of the opposite sex. Hormone replacement therapy is being put in place.
No studies have provided data on the prevention of Hermaphrodism.