Most common extracranial solid cancer in childhood and most common cancer in infancy It occur in children younger than two years


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NEUROBLASTOMA


Most common extracranial solid cancer in childhood and most common cancer in infancy
• It occur in children younger than two years.

• It is a neuroendocrine tumor, arising from any neural crest element of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS).

• It most frequently originates in one of the adrenal glands, but can also develop in nerve tissues in the neck, chest, abdomen, or pelvis.

• ESTHESIONEUROBLASTOMA:- also known as olfactory neuroblastoma arise from the olfactory epithelium.

• 50 to 60% of all neuroblastoma cases present with metastases.

■ GOOD PROGNOSIS:-
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  1. Age < 18 months
  2. Schwannonian stroma and gangliocytic differentiation
  3. Intratumoral calcification
  4. Hyperdiploid or near-triploid
  5. TrK-A Expression
  6. Absent telomerase
  7. Ferritin normal
    8 ) LDH <1500/ml

■ POOR- PROGNOSIS
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  1. Age > 18 months
  2. Absent Schwannonian stroma and gangliocytic differentiation
  3. No Intratumoral calcification
  4. Diploid, near-diploid or near tetraploid
  5. TrK-B Expression
  6. N-MYC amplification
  7. Chromosome 17q gain
    8 ) Loss of ch 1 and 11
  8. Telomerase present
  9. Ferritin elevated
  10. LDH >1500/ml