Prediabetes means that your blood sugar level is higher than normal but not yet high enough to be classified as type 2 diabetes. Without intervention, prediabetes is likely to become type 2 diabetes in 10 years or less.
*1impaired fasting glucose level(ifg)
*2imaired glucose tolerance test.
WHO criteria: fasting plasma glucose level from 6.1 mmol/l (110 mg/dL) to 6.9 mmol/L (125 mg/dL)
]ADA criteria: fasting plasma glucose level from 5.6 mmol/L (100 mg/dL) to 6.9 mmol/L (125
*Family history (parent or sibling)
*Dyslipidemia (triglycerides > 200 or HDL < 35) or
*obesity (body mass index > 25)
*History of gestational diabetes or infant born with birth weight greater than 9 lb (4 kg)High risk ethnic
*[vague]Hypertension (systolic blood pressure>140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg)
*Prior fasting blood glucose > 99Known *vascular disease
*Markers of insulin resistance (PCOS)&acanthosis Nigricans
*racial African-American, Native American, Latino, or Pacific Islander
Are older; people over age 45 are most likely to get it.
Have a waist larger than 40 inches if you’re a man and 35 inches if you’re a woman.
Eat red and processed meat, or drink sugary beverages but skimp on fruit, veggies, nuts, whole grains, and olive oil
Have a sleep problem, like sleep apnea, or you work changing shifts or night shifts
Prediabetes typically has no distinct signs or symptoms. Patients should monitor for signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes mellitus. These include the following:
*Unexplained weight loss
*Flu-like symptoms, including weakness and fatigue
*Slow healing of cuts or bruises
*Tingling or loss of feeling in hands or feet
*Recurring gum or skin infections
*Recurring vaginal or bladder infections
*A high BMI (Body Mass Index
DIAGNOSES OF PREDIABETIS ;-
is based on the presence of impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, and/o relevated HBA1c level
.1- Impaired glucose tolerance is defined as blood glucose levels of 140 to 199 mg/dL during a 75-gram oral glucose tolerance test (normal < 140 mg/dL), and
2= impaired fasting glucose is defined as blood glucose levels of 100 to 125 mg/dL
3-elevated HBA1c level between 5.7%and 6.4%
*conversion into T2DM
*Diastolic heart failure
*lifestyle changes to loose weight & decrease obesity
*healthylow fat diet intake
*regulardaily excercise program about 30m/day 5 days/week
reduction of weight about 10-15% keeping BMI < 25%
*avoidance of sedentary habits
*abesteince of smooking
*adequate control of blood pressure
*proper treatment of hyperlipidaemia
*if all above meassure failed the adition of drugs like metformin/acrobas
The combination of diet and exercise is arguably the single most important factor that could halt the progression towards type 2 diabetes in patients with prediabetes
currently there are four medications for treating the prediabetes subpopulation, including
metformin, pioglitazone, acarbose, and liraglutide.
In addition, the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) has also proposed three weight-loss therapies—including orlistat, lorcaserin, and phentermine/topiramate ER—to manage obesity with the goal of halting the progression of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes
If medical management fails to achieve glycemic control, advanced measures such as bariatric surgery can be used with the goal of reversing the prediabetis & helping the pts to loose weight.