A 19-year-old man was in a barroom brawl and was punched squarely in the right eye

A 19-year-old man was in a barroom brawl and was punched squarely in the right eye. He comes to the emergency room the next day and complains of diplopia. An X-ray reveals fracture of the orbital floor. Neurological examination shows loss of sensation of the skin of the right face below the right eye and the upper gums. Which of the following nerves may be injured?

(A) frontal nerve
(B) infraorbital nerve
© nasociliary nerve
(D) supraorbital nerve
(E) trochlear nerve

explanation:

(B)The infraorbital nerve, a branch of the maxillary (V2) division of the trigeminal (fifth cranial) nerve, courses below the orbital floor to reach the area of skin below the eye. It provides superior alveolar branches to supply the upper gums and is vulnerable in fractures involving the floor of the orbit and face area. All the nerves mentioned in the other choices will be spared by this type of injury. The frontal nerve (choice A) and nasociliary nerve (choice C) are branches from the ophthalmic division (V1) of the trigeminal (fifth cranial) nerve and course within the orbit. The supraorbital (choice D) nerve is a continuation branch of the frontal nerve onto the forehead, providing sensory innervation for this area. The trochlear (fourth cranial) nerve is also located within the orbit.