After load is decreased by?

After load is decreased by ?
a) Exercise
b) Anemia
c) Thyrotoxicosis
d) All of the above

Correct Answer - D
Ans. D. All of the above
After load (resistance offered to ventricular pumping action) :
Left ventricle has to pump out blood against aortic resistance.
Increased aortic resistance (e.g., high BP) tends to decrease stroke
Decreased peripheral resistance increases cardiac output e.g., in
exercises, AV fistula or shunt, severe anemia (due to vasodilation by
anemic hypoxia), thyrotoxicosis (due to vasodilation caused by
increased O2 consumption),andwetberi-beri.