AIPG DNB HOT MCQs: Pharmacology

Q-1. Prescription drugs are included in
a) Schedule C of drugs and schedule C of drugs and cosmetic Act
b) Schedule H of drugs and schedule C of drugs and cosmetic Act
c) Schedule P of drugs and schedule C of drugs and cosmetic Act
d) Schedule X of drugs and schedule C of drugs and cosmetic Act

Answer: Schedule H of drugs and schedule C of drugs and cosmetic Act
Explanation:
Schedule G: Most of these drugs are hormonal preparations. The drug label must display the text “Caution:
Schedule H (Prescription drugs): The drug label must display the texts Rx and warning: To be sold by retail on the prescription of a Registered Medical practitioner only.
Schedule X: All the regulations of Schedule H apply. The retailer must keep a copy of the prescription for two years.

Q-2. Drugs that have been used in the prevention of CMV infections are
a) Valacyclovir
b) Ganciclovir
c) Valganciclovir
d) All of above

Answer: All of above
Explanation:
Cytomegalovirus is the most common type of virus detected in people who have received solid organ transplants.
CMV disease is a major cause of illness and death during the first six to 12 months after transplantation.
Drugs used in the prevention of CMV infections:
Valacyclovir
Ganciclovir
Valganciclovir

Q-3. Nifurtimox and Benznidazole are used for
a) Trypanosoma brucei
b) B. malayi
c) H. nana
d) B. timori

Answer: Trypanosoma brucei
Explanation:
Nifurtimox and Benznidazole are the front-line drugs used to treat Chagas disease, the most important parasitic infection in the Americas.
These agents function as pro-drugs and must be activated within the parasite to have trypanocidal effects.

Q-4. Tolazoline is used as
a) As thrombin inhibitor in peripheral angiography
b) As vasodilator in treating coronary artery stenosis during angio procedures
c) As vasoconstrictor in t/t of varices
d) Antispasmodic during biliary spasm

Answer: As vasodilator in treating coronary artery stenosis during angio procedures
Explanation:
Tolazoline is an alpha blocker used as vasodilator in treating coronary artery stenosis during angiography procedures.

Q-5. Cerebellar toxicity is seen with
a) Cisplatin
b) Cytarabine
c) Bleomycin
d) Actinomycin D

Answer: Cytarabine
Explanation:
Cytarabine is an S phase specific anti-metabolite blocking DNA synthesis and repair.
Side effects of Cytarabine:
Nausea and vomiting
Bone marrow depression with leukopenia and thrombocytopenia
Cerebellar ataxia
Important points:
Acute cerebellar toxicity with ataxia and dysarthria is a well-known side effect during high-dose Cytarabine therapy.
Renal insufficiency is as a major risk factor in the development of cerebellar toxicity during Cytarabine therapy.

Q-6. Red man syndrome is due to
a) Clindamycin
b) Norfloxacin
c) Trimethoprim
d) Vancomycin

Answer: Vancomycin
Explanation:
Side effects of Vancomycin:
Fever and chills
Phlebitis
Oto-toxicity
Nephro-toxicity
Red man or red neck syndrome
Important points:
Drugs (Ciprofloxacin, Amphotericin-B, rifampicin and teicoplanin) that stimulate histamine release can result in red man syndrome.

Q-7. Lopinavir is lately used for
a) PV
b) HAV
c) HSV
d) HIV

Answer: HIV
Explanation:
Lopinavir/ritonavir is a combination of HIV protease inhibitors. It works by stopping the HIV virus from multiplying.
Ritonavir inhibits the CYP3A mediated metabolism of Lopinavir.
Ritonavir is acting as a pharmacokinetic enhancer rather than an anti-retroviral agent.

Q-8. Newer drugs used in treatment of multiple sclerosis are all except
a) Interferon
b) Glatiramer acetate
c) Fingolimod
d) None

Answer: None
Explanation:

Q-9. Which of the following antiepileptic drugs has weak carbonic anhydrase inhibitor action?
a) Tiagabine
b) Topiramate
c) Lamotrigine
d) Vigabatrine

Answer: Topiramate
Explanation:
Topiramate can cause metabolic acidosis. It does this by impairing both the normal reabsorption of filtered HCO3− by the proximal renal tubule and the excretion of H+ by the distal renal tubule.
This combination of defects is termed mixed renal tubular acidosis (RTA). The mechanism involves the inhibition of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase.

Q-10. Which of the following drugs is a synthetic ergot derivative used in treatment of Alzheimer’s diseases?
a) Tacrine
b) Nicergoline
c) Piribedil
d) Rivastigmine

Answer: Nicergoline
Explanation:
Nicergoline is a semi-synthetic ergot derivative and used in treatment of conditions such as cerebral infarction, acute and chronic peripheral circulation disorders, vascular dementia, and Alzheimer’s disease.