Causes of Haematuria (Blood in urine)

Description

Hematuria is common. For example, in one
study,2 2.5% of men ages 28 to 57 tested positive
for heme when screened by dipstick testing, as
did 5.4% of men ages 18 to 54 in another study.3
Hematuria can be due to an isolated
anatomic disorder of any part of the genitourinary
tract (TABLE 1)—or it can be the harbinger
of a systemic disorder, notably cancer.
A panel convened by the American
Urological Association4 recently found that
the prevalence of highly or moderately significant
disease in patients with hematuria ranged
from 0% to 56%. The prevalence of urologic
malignancy in the studies reviewed ranged
from 0% to 25.8%. The prevalence varied with
the age and sex of the population assessed, the
referral source, and the clinical setting, but it
was highest in patients undergoing urologic
evaluation, in the elderly, and in men.4
In a prospective study of 100 patients over
age 16 who were referred because of hematuria,
5 37% were found to have urinary tract
cancer, while another 15% had a stone, chronic
urinary retention, or ureteropelvic junction
obstruction.