HIAA in urine present in

HIAA in urine present in?
a) Alkaptonuria
b) Albinism
c) Carcinoid
d) Phenylketonuria
Correct Answer - C
Answer: C. Carcinoid
Carcinoid syndrome develops in some people with carcinoid tumors
and is characterized by cutaneous flushing, abdominal cramps, and
diarrhea.
Carcinoid tumour occur throughout the gastrointestinal tract, most
commonly in the appendix, ileum and rectum in decreasing order of
frequency.
Right-sided valvular heart disease may develop after several years.
The syndrome results from vasoactive substances (including
serotonin, bradykinin, histamine, prostaglandins, polypeptide
hormones) secreted by the tumor, which is typically a metastatic
intestinal carcinoid.
Diagnosis is clinical and by demonstrating increased urinary 5-
hydroxyindoleacetic acid(HIAA).
Tumor localization may require a radionuclide scan or laparotomy.
Treatment of symptoms is with somatostatin or octreotide, but
surgical removal is performed where possible; chemotherapy may
be used for malignant tumors.