Horner syndrome-Features

Horner syndrome-Features

Horner syndrome, also known as Bernard-Horner syndrome, is a condition characterized by a triad of symptoms resulting from damage to the sympathetic nerves that supply the face and eye:

  1. Ptosis: This refers to drooping of the upper eyelid, which occurs due to paralysis of the muscle that lifts the eyelid. The degree of ptosis can vary depending on the severity of the nerve damage.
  2. Miosis: This refers to constriction of the pupil, which occurs due to paralysis of the muscle that dilates the pupil. The affected pupil may appear smaller than the other eye.
  3. Anhidrosis: This refers to decreased or absent sweating on the affected side of the face, due to loss of sympathetic innervation to the sweat glands.

In addition to these classic triad of symptoms, some patients with Horner syndrome may also experience:

  • Facial flushing on the affected side of the face
  • Drooping of the lower eyelid (known as “inverse ptosis”)
  • Eye redness or tearing
  • Changes in vision or eye movements
  • Headache or neck pain (in some cases)

Horner syndrome can be caused by a variety of underlying conditions, including trauma, tumors, vascular lesions, and neurological disorders such as syringomyelia or multiple sclerosis. The diagnosis of Horner syndrome is typically made through a combination of clinical examination, imaging studies, and specialized tests such as pharmacological pupil testing. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include medical or surgical interventions to address the underlying pathology.