1.Lift off test is done to assess the function of -
Lift Off Test (Gerber’s test)
Lift off test is done to assess the strength of subscapularis muscle and detect a rupture of the subscapularis tendon.
Subscapularis functions primarily as an internal rotator of the shoulder
The test is preformed with the arm extended and internally rotated such that the dorsum of the hand rests against the lower back.
Subscapularis is maximally active in this position.
Patient is then instructed to lift his/her hand off the back (Lift - off) (Attempting further internal rotation)
If the patient is able to lift the dorsum of the had off the back the subscapularis tendon is intact and the test is considered negative.
If the patient is not able to lift the dorsum of the hand off the back the subscapularis tendon is torn and the test is considered positive.
The lift off test is sensitive and specific test for subscapularis function and this has been validated by electromyography studies.
2.A 20-years old male presents with anterior shoulder dislocation. This injury is usually caused as a combination of which of the following -
1.Abduction & external rotation
2.Adduction & external rotation
3.Abduction & internal rotation
4.Adduction & internal rotation
Most common mechanism of injury for anterior dislocation of shoulder is fall on outstretched hand or throwing, with abduction, external rotation, and extension at shoulder.
Anterior shoulder dislocation
Indirect force (most common) → Abduction, external rotation, extension.
Direct force (less common) → Blow from the posterior aspect of shoulder.