Lung function abnormalities in childhood asthma

lung function abnormalities in childhood asthma

Childhood asthma is a chronic respiratory disorder characterized by airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness, which can cause lung function abnormalities. The following are some of the common lung function abnormalities observed in childhood asthma:

  1. Decreased Forced Expiratory Volume in One Second (FEV1): FEV1 measures the amount of air a person can forcefully exhale in one second. In childhood asthma, FEV1 is often decreased due to airway inflammation and constriction.
  2. Decreased Forced Vital Capacity (FVC): FVC measures the amount of air a person can forcefully exhale after taking a deep breath. In childhood asthma, FVC can be decreased due to airway inflammation, bronchial constriction, and reduced lung elasticity.
  3. Increased Airway Resistance: Airway resistance refers to the degree to which the airways resist airflow. In childhood asthma, airway resistance is often increased due to inflammation, bronchial constriction, and excessive mucus production.
  4. Reduced Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR): PEFR measures the maximum flow rate of air during a forced exhalation. In childhood asthma, PEFR is often reduced due to airway obstruction and bronchial constriction.
  5. Bronchodilator Response: Bronchodilator response refers to the improvement in lung function following the administration of a bronchodilator medication. In childhood asthma, a positive bronchodilator response indicates reversible airway obstruction, which is a hallmark of asthma.

These lung function abnormalities can be evaluated using various pulmonary function tests, including spirometry, plethysmography, and bronchial challenge testing.