NICE Scarlet fever part l

Scarlet fever⛲
:tulip:Defenition and aetiology::tulip:
(sometimes called scarlatina) is an infectious disease caused by bacteria called Streptococcus pyogenes, or group A streptococcus (GAS). The same bacteria can also cause impetigo.
:eye:‍:left_speech_bubble: Mainly a childhood disease and is most commonly seen between the ages of 2 and 8 years.
:eye:‍:left_speech_bubble:Although historically considered a dangerous disease, it is now much less serious.
:tulip:Mode of transmission::tulip:
:eye:‍:left_speech_bubble: Highly contagious.
:eye:‍:left_speech_bubble:Bacteria are present in the mouth, throat or nose of an infected person, or someone carrying the bacteria without symptoms,
:eye:‍:left_speech_bubble:Spread by contact with that person’s mucus or saliva.
:eye:‍:left_speech_bubble: Might be on cups, plates, pens, toys or surfaces, such as tables which might have been used or touched by someone carrying the bacteria.
:eye:‍:left_speech_bubble:Also can be catched by breathing infected airborne droplets produced through an infected person’s coughing, sneezing or normal breathing.
:eye:‍:left_speech_bubble: Tends to be most common in the winter and spring
:tulip:Symptoms and signs::tulip:
:eye:‍:left_speech_bubble:The first symptoms often include a sore throat, headache, fever, nausea and vomiting.
:eye:‍:left_speech_bubble:After12 to 48 hours the characteristic fine red rash develops (if you touch it, it feels like sandpaper).
:eye:‍:left_speech_bubble:Typically, it first appears on the chest and stomach, rapidly spreading to other parts of the body.
:eye:‍:left_speech_bubble:On more darkly-pigmented skin, the rash may be harder to spot, although the ‘sandpaper’ feel should be present
:eye:‍:left_speech_bubble:Further symptoms include:*
:chess_pawn:Fever* over 38.3º C (101º F) or higher is common
:chess_pawn:White coating on the tongue* which peels a few days later, leaving the tongue looking red and swollen (known as ‘strawberry tongue’)
:chess_pawn:Swollen glands* in the neck
:chess_pawn:Feeling tired and unwell
:chess_pawn:Flushed red face*, but pale around the mouth.
:chess_pawn:The flushed face may appear more ‘sunburnt’ on darker skin
:chess_pawn:Peeling skin* on the fingertips, toes and groin area, as the rash fades
:chess_pawn: Usually takes 2 to 5 days from infection before the first symptoms appear.
:chess_pawn:Incubation period* may be as short as 1 day and as long as 7 days.