Physiological changes in pregnancy?

Points to be remembered for Physiological changes in pregnancy?

Absolute Indications of urgent dialysis :

1)Refractory hyperkalemia

  1. Uremic Symptoms like Uremic pericarditis / Uremic encephalopathy / Uremic bleeding

  2. Volume overload state / CHF .

But here urea is mildly elevated to 86 , K+ is 4.4 , ONLY Creat is high and Ca+2 is high with anemia . So here none of the above mentioned indications are present so we won’t get much benefit from doing dialysis . A/c to given scenario : pt. Is just in AKI due to Multiple Myeloma

To treat AKI in MM : we start chemo based on BORTEZOMIB + high dose Dexa : they will handle light chains accumulated in kidney because they are the main culprit of it ( dialysis can’t remove these deposited / accumulated light chains ) . BORTEZOMIB has rapid action . Lenalidomide takes time to act and is started once aki start resolving .

Start on ivF . Why ?

  1. 1st line treatment of Hypercalcemia is ivF with NS ( and m/c cause of aki in MM is Hypercalcemia and Light chain cast nephropathy )

  2. ivF will maintain Urine output so will prevent precipitation/ accumulation of light chains in TUBULES

  3. with ivF we also start Bicarb therapy to make urine alkaline so that precipitation of Light chains can be halted .