Prosthetic valve stenosis and regurgitation

Prosthetic valve stenosis and regurgitation

Mechanical valve stenosis is rare and typically due to valve thrombosis or pannus formation.

Paravalvular regurgitation affects 5–17% of all surgically implanted prosthetic heart valves and mainly the mitral valve.

Patients may be asymptomatic or present with haemolysis or heart failure. Reoperation is associated with increased morbidity and is not always successful because of underlying tissue friability, inflammation, or calcification.

Percutaneous closure should be considered for closure of clinically symptomatic paravalvular leaks, and, in experienced centres, it is successful in up to 90% of the cases, with <10% complications rate (obstruction of the tilting valve leaflet, embolization of the device, coronary artery obstruction, or stroke).