Red flags in medicine( until proven otherwise-UPO)
● Breast mass+ bloody nipple discharge in age >50y is Breast
cancer till proved otherwise
● Chest pain with focal neurological deficit is Aortic dissection
until proved otherwise
● Severe limb pain, is thromboembolic in origin UPO
●Trauma patient with hypotension is internal hemorrhage UPO
● Epigastric pain in pt> 50 years is IHD until proved otherwise.
● Unilateral sudden vision loss is CRAO UPO
● Dysphonia > 3wks in old age is laryngeal carcinoma untill proved otherwise.
● Palpable &painless of gall bladder is cancer head of pancreas
until proven otherwise
● Any rheumatic carditist
with unexplained fever is an infectious
endocarditis until proven otherwise.
● Iron deficiency anemia considered to be due to blood loss UPO
● In pediatric any vomiting after cough is pertussis UPO
● Any old male suffers from rectal bleeding is considered colon
carcinoma until proved otherwise
● Any reproductive female with acute abdomen is ectopic
pregnancy until proved otherwise
●Any focal strictures of the bile ducts should be considered
malignant until proven otherwise.
●Appearance of iron deficiency in an adult male means
gastrointestinal blood loss until proven otherwise
●Fever with new murmur Infective endocarditis UPO
● Acute onset aphasia is stroke until proven otherwise
●Unilateral SNHL is acoustic neuroma UPO
●Trigeminal neuralgia less than 40 is multiple sclerosis UPO
● Wheezing flushing is carcinoid syndrome UPO
●Sudden acute scrotum pain is torsion until proven otherwise
● Unilateral rhinorrhea with bad smelling is a forgien body UPO
● Any new symptom in elderly pt is due to drug side effect UPO
●Mono artritis is septic arthritis until proven otherwise
●Iron deficiency anemia with positive fecal occult blood test in
an elderly is colorectal cancer until proven otherwise
● Any delay of passing stool for more than 24h in neonatal it is
Hirschsprung’s until proved otherwise
● Newborn presenting with frothy saliva should be considerd as
oesophageal atresia until proved otherwise
● Fever and/or a new rash are considered infectious
and contagious UPO
●Hypoxia with clear lungs is pulmonary embolism UPO
●Painless progressive jaundice in elderly is pancreatic
head carcinoma UPO
● Lacerations always cut through tendons, suspect nerves
and arteries injury until proven otherwise.
●Syncope should be considered cardiac until proven otherwise.
● Whenever a person suffers trauma to the head or neck, a spinal
cord injury must be suspected until proven otherwise
●Every abdominal mass in a 5-year-old is a neuroblastoma UPO
● Dimpling or puckering of the breast, must be
breast cancer until proven otherwise
● Wide QRS tachycardia is VT until proven otherwise
●Unexplained hematuria is of malignant origin, UPO
● The presence of an adnexal mass or free pelvic fluid represents
ectopic pregnancy until proven otherwise.
●Women with postmenopausal bleeding should be considered to
have endometrial cancer until proven otherwise
● Fever in the elderly is sepsis until proven otherwise
●Unconscious male with an erection has a spinal cord injury UPO
● Fever in a returning traveller is “malaria” UPO
● High ESR osteoporosis is myeloma until proven otherwise.
●Child with nasal polyps is cystic fibrosis until proven otherwise.
●Painless hematouria +old age+ (male) its bladder ca UPO
● Testicular mass in man or >50 years is lymphoma UPO
● Hemoptysis in old age is lung cancer, until proved otherwise.
● Unilateral lower limb swelling is DVT until proved otherwise.
●Fever with cough > 2wks is TB until proved otherwise