Scoliosis is a medical condition in which a person's spine is curved from side to side

Scoliosis is a medical condition in which a person’s spine is curved from side to side.

Although it is a complex three-dimensional deformity, on an X-ray, viewed from the rear, the spine of an individual with scoliosis can resemble an “S” or a “C”, rather than a straight line.

The deformity may begin in the intervertebral discs, producing distortions in the epiphyseal cartilage which may influence the end of growth and therefore the deformity of the vertebrae, resulting in wedging and rotation of the vertebrae.

People having reached skeletal maturity are less likely to have a worsening case. Some severe cases of scoliosis can lead to diminishing lung capacity, putting pressure on the heart, and restricting physical activities.

An estimated 65% of scoliosis cases are idiopathic (cause unknown, sub-classified as infantile, juvenile, adolescent, or adult, according to when onset occurred), about 15% are congenital (caused by vertebral anomalies present at birth) and about 10% are secondary to a neuromuscular disease (e.g., spina bifida, cerebral palsy, spinal muscular atrophy, or physical trauma) or syndromes such as Chiari malformation.