Short stature is seen in –
a) Maternal deprivation syndrome
d) Paternal smoking
- If the height of the child is below the 3rd percentile or less than 2 S.D. from the mean, he or she is considered to be short stature.
- Causes of short stature
A) Proportionate short stature
Normal variant - 1) Familial
2) Constitutional delay in growth
Prenatal causes - 1) Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR)
2) Intrauterine infections
Posnatal causes - 1) Nutritional dwarfism (due to malnutrition)
2) Chronic visceral disease 3) Endocrine disorders (hypopituitrism, Juvenile DM) 4) Psychosocial (emotional deprivation, maternal deprivation)
B) Disproportionate short stature
- With short limbs - Achondroplasia, hypochondroplasia, chondroectodermal dysplasia, deformities due to rickets and osteogenesis imperfecta, hypothyroidism.
- With short trunk : Spondylo-epiphyseal dysplasia, mucoplysaccharidosis, mucolipidosis, caries spine, hemivertebrae.