Since absence of parietal cells can cause Hypergastrinemia

Since absence of parietal cells can cause Hypergastrinemia

Hypergastrinemia refers to elevated levels of gastrin, a hormone that plays a crucial role in the regulation of gastric acid secretion. Absence of parietal cells in the stomach can indeed cause hypergastrinemia.

Parietal cells, found in the gastric glands of the stomach, are responsible for producing and secreting hydrochloric acid (HCl) into the stomach. Additionally, parietal cells also produce intrinsic factor, which is essential for the absorption of vitamin B12 in the small intestine.

When parietal cells are absent or significantly reduced in number, a condition known as achlorhydria or hypochlorhydria occurs. This results in decreased gastric acid production in the stomach. In response to low acid levels, the antral G cells in the stomach, which are responsible for producing and releasing gastrin, become hyperactive.

Gastrin stimulates the release of gastric acid and promotes the growth of gastric mucosa. In the absence of adequate acid production, the increased gastrin levels in the blood can be observed as hypergastrinemia.

Hypergastrinemia resulting from parietal cell absence can occur in various conditions, including autoimmune gastritis (type A gastritis), which is characterized by immune-mediated destruction of parietal cells, or in cases where parietal cell loss is due to surgical removal of part or all of the stomach (e.g., gastrectomy).

Hypergastrinemia, particularly in the setting of parietal cell absence, can have implications for the gastrointestinal tract, including increased risk of gastric neuroendocrine tumors (gastrinomas) and development of enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell hyperplasia, which can further lead to conditions like gastric carcinoids.

Management of hypergastrinemia associated with parietal cell absence typically involves addressing the underlying cause, such as treating autoimmune gastritis or managing any complications that may arise. Medical interventions, such as acid-suppressing medications, may also be considered to alleviate symptoms and minimize the potential risks associated with hypergastrinemia.