The incretins are hormones that are released in response to the consumption of food. Which of the following represents one of the major effects of incretin release from intestinal epithelial cells?
(A) activation of gastric emptying ensuring release of ingested food
(B) enhancement in adipocyte triacylglycerol synthesis
© enhancement of insulin secretion from the pancreas
(D) repression of pancreatic cell proliferation
(E) stimulation of gastric acid secretion to aid in digestion
© The incretins are molecules associated with food intake-stimulation of insulin secretion from the pancreas. Two of the many GI hormones have significant effects on insulin secretion and glucose regulation. These hormones are GLP-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP). Both of these gut hormones represent the incretins. In contrast to activation of gastric emptying (choice A) and repression of pancreatic cell proliferation (choice D), GLP-1 inhibits gastric emptying and promotes a sense of satiety, induces proliferation, and represses apoptosis of pancreatic beta-cells. The incretins do not enhance adipose triacylglycerol synthesis (choice B). Repression of gastric acid secretion, not sitmulation (choice E) is one of the additional functions of GIP.