The sacroiliac and symphyseal joints and on occasion some instability

The change is one of relaxation of the ligaments, allowing more mobility at the sacroiliac and symphyseal joints and on occasion some instability. Whether or not these changes truly add to pelvic size has not been determined, but they seemto allow passage more easily, perhaps by accommodation.

1.Fetal acidosis
2.Fetal immaturity
3.Upper airway obstruction
4.Congenital laryngeal stenosis


In the majority of infants, respiratory effort will be initiated between 30 and 60 seconds after birth. Fetal acidosis, drugs given to the mother, upper airway obstruction, a premature infant, pneumothorax, congenital anomalies, infection, and trauma can all be severe enough to inhibit an infant’s respiratory effort. The cause must be sought and corrected. Most often, the cause is upper airway obstruction by fluids and mucus, which may be easily cleared by bulb suction.