The sodium – potassium pump is

  1. The cardiac jelly formed around the heart tube during early development, contributes to the formation of:

a. Pericardium.
b. Mesocardium
c. Myocardium
d. Endocardium.
Answer: b

  1. A 40 year old female patient presented with dysphagia to both liquids and regurgitation solids and for 3 moths. The dysphagia was non-progressive. What is the most likely diagnosis?
    a. Carcinoma of the esophagus.
    b. Lower oesophageal mucosal ring.
    c. Achalasia cardia.
    d. Reflux esophagitis with esophageal stricture.
    Answer: d

  2. Hyperacusis in Bell’s palsy is due to the paralysis of the following muscle:
    a. Tensor tympani.
    b. Levator veli palatini.
    c. Tensor veli palatini.
    d. Stapedius.
    Answer: c

  3. A 15 year-old boy presented with one day history of bleeding gums, subconjunctival bleed and purpuric rash. Investigations revealed the following results: Hb- 6.4 gm/dL; TLC – 26,500/mm3; prathromibine time – 20 sec with a control of 13 sec; portial thromboplastin time - 50 sec; and Fibrinogen 10 mg/dL. Peripheral smear was suggestive of acute myeloblastic leukernice. Which of the following is the most likely?

a. Myeloblastic leukemia without maturation.
b. Myeloblastic leukemia with maturation.
c. Promyelocytic leukemia.
d. Myelomonscytic leukemia.
Answer: a

  1. The sodium – potassium pump is an example of:
    a. Active transport.
    b. Passive transport.
    c. Facilitated diffusion.
    d. Osmosis.

Answer: c

  1. The type of enzyme inhibition (in which succinate dehydrogenase reaction is inhibited by malonate) is an example of:
    a. Noncompetitive.
    b. Uncompetitive.
    c. Competitive.
    d. Allosteric.
    Answer: b

  2. In a solution the concentration of hydrogen ion [H+] is 1 × 10-6 moles/litre. The pH of the solution will be:
    a. Three
    b. Six.
    c. Nine.
    d. Twelve.
    Answer: c

  3. The electron flow in Cytochrome C oxidase can be blocked by:
    a. Rotenone.
    b. Antimycin – A
    c. Cyanide.
    d. Actinomycin.
    Answer: c

  4. Cholera toxin:
    a. Increases the levels of intracellular cyclic GMP
    b. Acts through the receptor for opiates
    c. Cause continued activations of adenylate cyclase.
    d. Inhibits the enzyme phosphodiesterase.
    Answer: c

  5. The amino acid, which is associated with atherosclerosis, is:
    a. Lysine
    b. Homocysteine.
    c. Cysteine
    d. Alanine