- Physical dependence only
- Tolerance and physical dependence
- Psychedelic effects
Heroin and other opioids (such as morphine and meperidine) exhibit a high degree of tolerance and physical dependence. The tolerance rate magnitudes to all of the effects of opioids are not necessarily the same. The physical dependence is quite clear from the character and severity of withdrawal symptoms, which include vomiting spasms, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, and acid-base imbalances among others.
Secobarbital exhibits the same pharmacologic properties as other members of the barbiturate class. Most nonmedical use is with short-acting barbiturates, such as secobarbital. Although there may be considerable tolerance to the sedative and intoxicating effects of the drug, the lethal dose is not much greater in addicted than in normal persons. Tolerance does not develop to the respiratory effect. The combination of alcohol and barbiturates may lead to fatalities because of their combined respiratory depressive effects. Similar outcomes may occur with the benzodiazepines. Severe withdrawal symptoms in epileptic patients may include grand mal seizures and delirium.