Which of the following is associated with this condition?
- A. Malassezia furfur
- B.Pernicious anemia
- C. Pityrosporum orbiculare
- D. Cutibacterium acnes (formerly Propionibacterium acnes )
- E.Squamous cell carcinoma
- A. Malassezia furfur —Incorrect. Malassezia species are associated with pityriasis (tinea) versicolor, not PMH.
- B.Pernicious anemia—Incorrect. Noncutaneous autoimmune disorders, such as Grave disease and pernicious anemia, have been shown to occur with higher incidence in patients with vitiligo. No association has been shown to exist between PMH and autoimmune disorders.
- C. P orbiculare —Incorrect. P orbiculare has been suggested to be associated with confluent and reticulated papillomatosis because of its prevalence in some lesions in yeast form; however, this is not largely accepted as the pathogenic mechanism of confluent and reticulated papillomatosi because many lesions have not been found to contain the yeast. To our knowledge, it has no role in the development of PMH.
- E.Squamous cell carcinoma—Incorrect. The development of squamous cell carcinoma represents a long-term risk in skin affected by erythema ab igne. This association is particularly observed in patients exposed to hydrocarbon-fueled heat sources such as coal. No such association between PMH and cutaneous malignancy has been shown.