Most common extracranial solid cancer in childhood and most common cancer in infancy
• It occur in children younger than two years.
• It is a neuroendocrine tumor, arising from any neural crest element of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS).
• It most frequently originates in one of the adrenal glands, but can also develop in nerve tissues in the neck, chest, abdomen, or pelvis.
• ESTHESIONEUROBLASTOMA:- also known as olfactory neuroblastoma arise from the olfactory epithelium.
• 50 to 60% of all neuroblastoma cases present with metastases.
■ GOOD PROGNOSIS:-
- Age < 18 months
- Schwannonian stroma and gangliocytic differentiation
- Intratumoral calcification
- Hyperdiploid or near-triploid
- TrK-A Expression
- Absent telomerase
- Ferritin normal
8 ) LDH <1500/ml
■ POOR- PROGNOSIS
- Age > 18 months
- Absent Schwannonian stroma and gangliocytic differentiation
- No Intratumoral calcification
- Diploid, near-diploid or near tetraploid
- TrK-B Expression
- N-MYC amplification
- Chromosome 17q gain
8 ) Loss of ch 1 and 11
- Telomerase present
- Ferritin elevated
- LDH >1500/ml