The uterine fibroid is a mild tumour that develops in the uterus wall

The uterine fibroid is a mild tumour that develops in the uterus wall. Although often asymptomatic, it can cause pain, abundant rules and fertility disorders in some women. Fortunately, treatments exist.

Different types of fibroids
Fibroids Are Mild (Non-Cancer) tumors that develop in the womb wall. Their number and location may vary from one woman to another, as well as their size (ranging from a few mm to several centimeters). They can be of 3 Types:

The Intramural (the most common type of fibroids) are located in the myometrium,
Under-Serous Fibroids Develop outside the womb,
Under the endometrium or endocavitaires are more rare and grow under the endometrium, which can occupy a certain space in the uterine chamber.

Cervical Fibroid: what causes?
Cervical Fibroid is a common condition that affects especially women after 30 years. It is estimated that about 30 to 50 % of women over 30 years of age are atteintes1, this percentage increasing with age. The cause of their appearance is not clear, but different risk factors are known to promote their development:

A history of fibroids in the family in the first degree (Mother, sister),
Ethnic Origin: Fibroids Are more common in African-American women. Their fibroids are often bigger, more numerous and appear at an earlier age,
Hormonal variations: Sex Hormones (both estrogen and progesterone) play a role in the growth of fibroids, which do not appear before puberty and often stop growing at menopause. Pregnancy is suitable for the appearance and / or growth of fibroids,
Overweight and obesity,
The Nulliparity,
The appearance of the rules before 12 years,
Alcohol consumption.

The consequences of the cervical fibroid
The size, location and number of fibroids influence the appearance and intensity of symptoms. More than 50 % of fibroids develop without causing symptoms. Among the most common symptoms are abnormally long and abundant rules (HMB) and / or bleeding between the rules (bleeding). Pain (sometimes brutal), a feeling of pressure or heaviness in the lower belly are also characteristic of the fibroids.

They can lead to fertility disorders and, in the event of pregnancy, an unusual insert of the placenta, a risk of diaper, or premature birth.

Other symptoms (frequent desire to urinate, constipation, painful sex…) are also possible. Women with fibroid don’t have more risk of developing cervical cancer and fibroids never evolve into cancer.

What treatments?
It is generally not necessary to treat the symptoms of asymptomatic. For other fibroids, different options exist depending on the size, location and number of fibroids, but also the age of the patient:

Medication treatments
Different medicines help reduce the size of the fibroids and often the symptoms related to them. These treatments are indicated in anticipation of an operation to facilitate the surgical gesture. For patients with abundant blood loss, the installation of an intra device (IUD) to the serum allows to reduce the amount of menstrual flow and its duration, as well as the taking of certain medicines.

It is possible to remove one or more fibroids while preserving the uterus and therefore, the possibility of future pregnancy. This operation is called myomectomy. The Technique Chosen (Laparotomy, Laparoscopy, hysteroscopy…) depends on the type of fibroid, its size, and number. The Myomectomy does not protect from a return of fibroids. The only solution to avoid a repeat is the mastectomy (removal of the uterus), but it is reserved for women who no longer wish children or in whom it is not possible.

The embolization of the uterine streets
It is possible to deprive the fibroid of oxygen and nutrients by clogging the blood ships that irrigate it. To do this, the doctor inject, thanks to a tube, of which come to place in these ships.